The Hidden Persuaders of the Digital Age

A presentation at EuroIA 2017 in September 2017 in Stockholm, Sweden by Per Axbom

Slide 1

Slide 1

PER HIDDEN PERSUADERS OF THE DIGITAL AGE M O B AX m o b @ax @axbom THE

Slide 2

Slide 2

Take out your phone.

Slide 3

Slide 3

Write a message to someone you care about. Perhaps someone who has not heard from you in a while. Just wanted to say hi. Hope you’re having a great day. Thinking about you. Would love to get together soon. Realized we haven’t talked in a while. Talk this weekend?

Slide 4

Slide 4

When good turns out to be bad m o b x @a

Slide 5

Slide 5

The overall effect of food aid programs is the disruption of local agricultural markets, making it harder for poor countries to develop their own resources and feed themselves in the long run.

Slide 6

Slide 6

Slide 7

Slide 7

Slide 8

Slide 8

Anchoring Loss aversion Decoy effect Sunk cost fallacy Confirmation bias Expectation bias Bandwagon effect

Slide 9

Slide 9

Bias is the tendency to have an opinion, or view, that is often without considering evidence and other information. Biases are a human trait, and can be a weakness. As designers we are not learning about human weaknesses so that we may exploit them. Our job is to remedy them.

Slide 10

Slide 10

The private social network for your neighborhood. My boyfriend just saw two suspicious AfricanAmerican men in a car. They drove their car up the street, made a U-turn, and parked.” Imagine having to realize that the platform you built to bring communities closer is in fact creating great divides within them.

Slide 11

Slide 11

“I’m a person of color so it really cut deep. We hated the idea that something we built would be viewed as racist… I hadn’t seen it in my own neighborhood’s Nextdoor and so didn’t realize it was an issue for us. Once I got past that, I was powered by the challenge to do something about it.” Nirav Tolia, CEO of Nextdoor

Slide 12

Slide 12

How NextDoor managed negative impact ✓ Listening ✓ Assuming ownership ✓ Transparency ✓ Positive friction ✓ Leadership buy-in

Slide 13

Slide 13

OUTCOME

Slide 14

Slide 14

IMPACT

Slide 15

Slide 15

Slide 16

Slide 16

Whenever I’m asked to autograph a copy of “Nudge,” the book I wrote with Cass Sunstein, the Harvard law professor, I sign it, “Nudge for good.” Unfortunately, that is meant as a plea, not an expectation. – Richard A Thaler

Slide 17

Slide 17

Slide 18

Slide 18

“UX is about putting people first”

Slide 19

Slide 19

The fallacy of frictionless m o b x @a

Slide 20

Slide 20

A B “Thanks for giving me a break buddy!”

Slide 21

Slide 21

LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER

Slide 22

Slide 22

Slide 23

Slide 23

LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER

Slide 24

Slide 24

profit LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER buyer uses reptilian brain

Slide 25

Slide 25

About | News | Press Center | Career Opportunities | Investors About | News | Press Center | Career Opportunities | Investors About | News | Press Center | Jobs | Investors

Slide 26

Slide 26

Slide 27

Slide 27

Slide 28

Slide 28

Slide 29

Slide 29

76 work days http://techland.time.com/2012/03/06/youd-need-76-work-days-to-read-all-your-privacy-policies-each-year/

Slide 30

Slide 30

Listening for negative impact m o b x @a

Slide 31

Slide 31

Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people on an individual or societal level. input output outcome impact investments and resources product/service provided immediate achievements medium/long-term consequences measured rarely measured cultural economic environmental health / well-being political scientific social technological Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people and/or the planet.

Slide 32

Slide 32

Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people on an individual or societal level. input output outcome impact investments and resources product/service provided immediate achievements medium/long-term consequences measured rarely measured cultural economic environmental health / well-being political scientific social technological In finance, we have developed shared fundamentals, which include risk, return, liquidity, volatility… to manage financial goals. For impact, there is a shared understanding that impact refers to material effects experienced by people and planet, both positive and negative and include 5 dimensions: what, how much, who, contribution and risk.

Slide 33

Slide 33

Hungry? INPUT OUTPUT OUTCOME IMPACT Invest in Own Eat Weight gain chocolate chocolate chocolate Acne Soon hungry again ✓ Hunger corrected Addiction

Slide 34

Slide 34

Lots on your mind? PUSH NOTIFICATIONS INPUT OUTPUT OUTCOME IMPACT Communicate Notifications Notifications sent Stress/Anxiety need built User reminded False positives People act Lower work performance on the notification Concentration lapses Diminishing trust

Slide 35

Slide 35

Notifications LOOK OVER HERE! Your go-to design choice for interrupting human relationships and disrupting concentration.

Slide 36

Slide 36

Online behavioral therapy. Notifications to psychologists. WHAT Induced stress HOW MUCH WHO A lot Overworked psychologists CONTRIBUTION RISK Big Patient harm The Impact Management Project is the voice of over 700 practitioners from across geographies and disciplines.

Slide 37

Slide 37

Peak Notification Hey friend! I just wanted to take a slice out of your life. Bye!

Slide 38

Slide 38

Peak Asshole Allow notifications? YES NO

Slide 39

Slide 39

A B

Slide 40

Slide 40

Slide 41

Slide 41

Slide 42

Slide 42

A higher conversion rate is not equivalent to “better for the person”.

Slide 43

Slide 43

Slide 44

Slide 44

Ask a psychiatrist

Slide 45

Slide 45

Buying milk online 6 for 70kr

Slide 46

Slide 46

LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER

Slide 47

Slide 47

Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people on an individual or societal level. input output outcome impact investments and resources product/service provided immediate achievements medium/long-term consequences measured rarely measured cultural economic environmental health / well-being political scientific social technological The best way to adopt an ethical mindset is to include impact risk assessment in your work.

Slide 48

Slide 48

Why designers fail PER M O B AX

Slide 49

Slide 49

“Life is a Long Journey between Human Being and Being Human. Let’s take at least one step each day to cover the distance.” — Drishti Bablani It would appear… that designers are also human beings.

Slide 50

Slide 50

Confirmation bias Choice-supportive bias Framing “This works really well. Yes, I understand completely.” “I believe you.”

Slide 51

Slide 51

4 out of 20 users could not find the search function on the website. 16 out of 20 users found the search function on the website.

Slide 52

Slide 52

Many designers express an ethical boundary of not working for tobacco, gambling or even soda companies… …yet have no problem working with solutions that encourage people to submit to a sedentary lifestyle, engage in addictive behavior or pursue short-term rewards.

Slide 53

Slide 53

the anxiety is real the nudges don’t make it easier what is right?

Slide 54

Slide 54

“The design industry is part of the problem. There is an idea that we constantly have to produce new things. The industry is oriented around launches and designing a new one and another new one.” – Florian Idenburg, principal of SO-IL

Slide 55

Slide 55

The problem-solver is part of the problem. Wherever you go, there you are.

Slide 56

Slide 56

The paradox of “a seat at the table”. Instead of focusing on people, designers are focusing on numbers.

Slide 57

Slide 57

The power of you PER M O B AX

Slide 58

Slide 58

Cognitive dissonance The mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values. A consequence of a person’s performing an action that contradicts personal beliefs, ideals, and values; and also occurs when confronted with new information that contradicts said beliefs, ideals, and values.

Slide 59

Slide 59

Raise your hand and take it down when you hear a question you do not agree with. ✓ I have lied. ✓ I have lied to someone I care about. ✓ When I lie it is often to protect the feelings of the person I am lying to. ✓ I believe I will continue to lie. ✓ I have based design decisions on too little data. ✓ I will continue to design with too little data.

Slide 60

Slide 60

I am a good person? You are a human

Slide 61

Slide 61

Relativism - Absolutism Situation ethics Utilitarianism Kantian ethics Virtue ethics Token absolutism

Slide 62

Slide 62

PERSON 1: “Does my hair look good.” PERSON 2: (lying) “Yes.” PERSON 1: “Awesome; I’ll keep going to this new hairdresser I’ve found then.” Outcome: Everyone feels good in the moment. Impact: Person 1 will keep having bad hair.

Slide 63

Slide 63

I don’t care I want to behave responsibly I want to support activities and businesses that have a positive effect on the world I want to contribute to solutions

Slide 64

Slide 64

You are never just working on an interface or an information architecture. You are working on a slice of other people’s lives.

Slide 65

Slide 65

About | News | Press Center | Career Opportunities | Investors About | News | Press Center | Career Opportunities | Investors About | News | Press Center | Jobs | Investors About | News | Press Center | Career Opportunities | Investors

Slide 66

Slide 66

Your material and your tools m o b x @a

Slide 67

Slide 67

Slide 68

Slide 68

Slide 69

Slide 69

Slide 70

Slide 70

Richard Lee, New Zealand

Slide 71

Slide 71

Slide 72

Slide 72

Prejudice that causes negative impact is already woven into the fabric of the Internet. If you don’t take a stand and make considered choices for change, minorities and underserved groups will keep being hurt.

Slide 73

Slide 73

The legacy of city planner Robert Moses

Slide 74

Slide 74

Slide 75

Slide 75

We talk a lot about empathy in UX but we rarely talk about how empathy itself is prejudiced. People who are already being hurt are the ones who are most likely to get hurt by your design.

Slide 76

Slide 76

Gender and sexuality minorities Religious minorities Racial minorities Ethnic minorities Age minorities People with disabilities People in poverty Sufferers of crime

Slide 77

Slide 77

adjective having or showing laziness or negligence. Synonyms: lax, negligent, neglectful, remiss, careless, slapdash, slipshod, lackadaisical, lazy, inefficient, incompetent, inattentive, offhand, casual, disorderly, disorganized;

Slide 78

Slide 78

ASSESSMENT IMPACT Racial profiling Important negative outcome Neutral Important positive outcome What How much Marginal effect Deep effect For few For many Short-term Long-term Slowly Quickly People of color Well-served Underserved Who Adapted from www.impactmanagementproject.com

Slide 79

Slide 79

The Chlamydia Home Test Kit female male

Slide 80

Slide 80

The Chlamydia Home Test Kit penis vagina

Slide 81

Slide 81

The Chlamydia Home Test Kit penis vagina A United Nations fact sheet estimates that up to 1.7 per cent of the population “is born with intersex traits”.

Slide 82

Slide 82

My name is Per and I am a white man. I am a middle-aged, cisgender, privileged, liberal designer with a boatload of prejudice. I am not a person you should trust for answers. I will never get inclusion on my own. No matter who my friends are. I need to work hard to include a diverse mix of people in the design process. And I need to listen for negative impact all the time. I love my job but I need to love people first.

Slide 83

Slide 83

DickPicLocator

Slide 84

Slide 84

Slide 85

Slide 85

Adding friction m o b x @a

Slide 86

Slide 86

YOUR WEBSITE HOME INFO ABOUT CONTACT WE ARE UNIQUE READ MORE We are extremely unique and different from our competitors by having a website that looks exactly the same. Always. Three. Columns. We could have four columns. But everyone else has three. Feeling creative we added pic of smiling woman here. Yup, the website layout says we can offer only 3 services. Idea stolen, with utmost respect, from Dave Ellis. / novolume.co.uk

Slide 87

Slide 87

Slide 88

Slide 88

You will find the password by reading the welcome information carefully. g in gg lo r fo d or sw as p e th d n fi l il w u In this film yo r ou Y . rs te ac ar ch l al sm 5 , em st sy g in to the bookin l. ai m en io at rm fi n co e th in is e usernam Code of conduct explained whilst giving out one letter of the password every thirty seconds.

Slide 89

Slide 89

“Dana made it hard for people to join, but that was great, because our members were loyal, active and serious.” LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER Kevin Spacey about creating triggerstreet.com, a community for script writers.

Slide 90

Slide 90

LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER We design thinking

Slide 91

Slide 91

Final words Your promise to your profession m o b x @a

Slide 92

Slide 92

Instead of this… ✓ I didn’t know it ✓ I didn’t mean it ✓ I was forced ✓ It wasn’t me ✓ I didn’t understand

Slide 93

Slide 93

…do this. ✓ Listen (for real) ✓ Assume ownership ✓ Be transparent ✓ Use positive friction ✓ Make ethics and impact assessment part of your process

Slide 94

Slide 94

Did you get a reply?

Slide 95

Slide 95

Responsible design is a muscle that needs practice to grow.

Slide 96

Slide 96

Please choose the path of positive impact.

Slide 97

Slide 97

in progress Slides! And a free book preview axbom.com/euroia